Preliminary negotiations for the World Climate Conference: Industrialised nations do not want to pledge more money to the global South. A stocktaking of climate protection efforts to date is planned for COP28 in Dubai. At the end of a preparatory meeting in Bonn, there are indications: The conference will be marked by many conflicts. As became clear on Thursday at the end of the ten-day interim conference in Bonn, sharp lines of conflict are emerging between the industrialised and the developing countries. The latter are demanding more financial support, which, according to the news agency dpa, the rich countries are not yet willing to commit to. Although the technical preparatory work for Dubai was done in Bonn – largely undisputed points were cleared up – the meeting of about 5,000 delegates from all over the world hardly brought about any convergence on the really critical issues, according to observers. „The Bonn talks should have made more progress in their preparation,“ criticised Jan Kowalzig, a climate expert from the aid organisation Oxfam. spiegel.de , merkur.de
The first eleven days of June
have exceeded the temperature threshold of 1.5 degrees compared to the pre-industrial era for the first time. This was announced by the European earth observation programme Copernicus on Thursday. According to the report, the so-called 1.5 degree threshold has so far only been exceeded a few times in winter and spring – but never in summer.
Replacing mobile phone batteries yourself: Stricter rules for batteries are coming: In future, the EU will not only regulate the recycling of batteries. Users will now be able to replace smartphone batteries themselves – but this does not apply to all devices. Batteries in the EU are to have a longer life and be easier to replace. On Wednesday in Strasbourg, the European Parliament approved an agreement with the EU states on a regulation. It replaces a previous directive that only regulates the disposal of batteries. The EU states still have to agree to the project, which is considered a formality. heise.de , faz.net
Lauterbach announces national heat protection plan: According to experts, heat waves are becoming more frequent as a result of climate change. So far, however, there are hardly any concepts for heat protection in Germany. Health Minister Lauterbach now wants to change that. Federal Health Minister Karl Lauterbach has announced his intention to develop a heat protection plan for Germany. „We have to realise that we are not well positioned against heat death in Germany,“ said the SPD politician. He said it was unacceptable that between 5000 and 20,000 heat-related deaths had to be lamented every year. Therefore, Lauterbach said, he would invite representatives of the medical profession, nursing and the health care system next week. Among other things, the extent to which free drinking water or shelters can be offered should be examined. According to the health minister, a heat concept developed by France should serve as a model. tageschau.de
The green potential of district heating: In addition to the installation of heat pumps, politicians are pushing the expansion of district heating. District heating providers are therefore in the process of expanding their grids and converting to renewable energies. Today, district heating contributes about ten percent to the heat supply of households. According to studies by the Energy Efficiency Association for Heating, Cooling and CHP, this share is expected to triple by 2030. District heating should then cover about half of consumption in large cities (more than 100,000 inhabitants); 20 per cent in medium-sized cities (more than 20,000 inhabitants) and ten per cent in small towns. handelsblatt.com
ecodesign: EU Parliament wants ban on destruction of unsold items: The EU Parliament’s Environment Committee has adopted its position on the proposed Ecodesign Regulation for sustainable products. With this, the Parliament wants to prevent planned obsolescence and the destruction of unsold goods. The new EU rules, first proposed by the European Commission in March 2022, aim to facilitate the repair, reuse and recycling of everyday consumer goods, thereby reducing their impact on the environment. The proposal received broad support with 68 votes in favour, 12 against and eight abstentions. This suggests that it will also find broad support in next month’s vote in the plenary of the Parliament. euractiv.de, europarl.europa.eu
BOOK TIP OF THE WEEK:
Kulturgeschichte des Klimas
FROM THE ICE AGE TO GLOBAL WARMING.
The climate and man – history of a relationship
Throwing thunder and lightning was a prerogative of the gods, and Peter sent rain and sun as he pleased. For many centuries – probably even much longer – this worked quite well without human involvement. That was once upon a time. Today we make the weather ourselves. Experts agree: climate change is largely our fault. Time for a look back: How has climate influenced the human species? How did climate fluctuations change the lives of our ancestors, how did they determine their culture?
An illuminating foray through past climate fluctuations from the Holocene to the present day.
Everyone talks about the weather: we do too. There are currently more predictions than usual about how it will become; but what do we know about climate fluctuations 500 years ago, 5000 years ago? And how can we know anything at all about the history of weather? Finally, how have climate fluctuations affected humans, their well-being and inventiveness?
Wolfgang Behringer introduces us to historical research on climate development; he shows us what can be regarded as certain knowledge today, what fluctuations there were and how they hindered or promoted the progress of homo sapiens. To some extent, the book offers a scientific foundation, in order to then investigate the connection between climate development and cultural development in more detail for history from the Middle Ages onwards. Behringer’s book, which is well worth reading, vividly shows us the difficulties, but sometimes also the exceptionally pleasant weather periods our ancestors were confronted with during the Staufer period, for example, and how they dealt with them. This teaches us not least to take courage to understand climate change as the challenge of our generation and to influence it in a better sense. chbeck.de
Bundesnetzagentur: Auctions off areas for offshore wind farms. tagesschau.de
Climate in Germany: Unlikely that the drought will be resolved over the summer months. spiegel.de
Habeck: Trouble with high consultancy fees for ex-Gazprom subsidiary. n-tv.de
Shell: Returns to the Big Oil business. manager-magazin.de
Germany: Overtakes China to become the second most attractive country for investments in renewable energies. t3n.de
Private homes: Number of solar installations jumps. zdf.de
The seventeeen goals magazine tells inspiring stories about how people move the world and shows how everyone can make a contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
PODCAST OF THE WEEK:
Traps when buying fashion
Do not be misled!
How can you tell that a product has been produced sustainably and fairly? Often only by the small green symbols on the labels on the goods. But how meaningful are these?
The demand for fair-produced and high-quality clothing is growing steadily. But how can one be sure that, for example, the cotton was really produced sustainably or that the working conditions of the seamstresses are fair? Expert Gerd Bittl-Fröhlich gives an overview of the labels and seals you can trust and tips on how not to fall for greenwashing in the podcast „Grünes Licht – Mehr Nachhaltigkeit im Alltag“ (Green Light – More Sustainability in Everyday Life) with host Alexandra Schaller. t-online.de
COMMENT OF THE WEEK:
by Albrecht Meier
Union against EU environmental law: European party, my ass
Together with the Farmers‘ Union, the CDU/CSU is trying to overturn an important EU environmental law. The CDU/CSU is testing a possible election issue with the supposed excessive demands of Europe’s climate plans. What on earth has got into the CDU/CSU that it is trying to torpedo the European Union’s environmental and climate plans by any means necessary? One wonders: the CDU in particular has always seen itself as the European party. But now the EU plans to restore nature offer CDU leader Friedrich Merz and his followers a cheap opportunity to score points. The farmers‘ association provides the necessary arguments: The EU plan would take land away from the farmers, they say.
Merz has just announced a tougher political stance towards the traffic light coalition. He sees the Greens as the main opponents of the CDU/CSU. It fits in with the picture to be able to campaign against an important environmental law, as the CDU/CSU did on Friday in the Bundestag, but it is not only the Greens who are pushing for the renaturation ordinance, with the help of which, for example, moors are to be rewetted and forests reforested. Above all, EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen is behind the „Green Deal“ for climate protection, to which the EU environmental law is also supposed to contribute. And the CDU politician is known to be a party friend of Friedrich Merz. In Brussels, it is above all the conservative EPP group leader Manfred Weber who is trying to torpedo the environmental law. In the Environment Committee of the EU Parliament, the EPP MEPs were recently unable to bring the bill to the floor. Nevertheless, the environmental law is still on the back burner in Brussels. The final vote in the Environment Committee at the end of the month will be another exciting one…. tagesspiegel.de
Majority in favour of urban traffic change for bicycles: Two-thirds of Germans (73 per cent) support the implementation of a sustainable traffic change with extensive displacement of cars from cities in favour of bicycle mobility and public transport, whereby every second German citizen (49 per cent) and the majority of supporters attach conditions to such a traffic change. With about a quarter of Germans in favour, there are two poles facing each other on this question: On the one hand, 24 percent of Germans unconditionally support this urban transport turnaround, while 27 percent completely reject the displacement of cars from cities. sazbike.de
E-mobility: EU Parliament adopts battery regulation.The new regulation for the first time sets minimum levels of recovered raw materials such as cobalt, lead and lithium. The so-called minimum recycled content applies to industrial batteries, starter batteries and traction batteries. verkehrsrundschau.de
Mobility of the future: Invest more in bus and rail: The Consumer Report 2023 makes it clear, customers:want punctual and reliable local public transport. 91 percent agree in a recent representative survey commissioned by the vzbv (Consumer Report 2023) that the Federal Government must invest more in local public transport. Punctuality and reliability (91 percent) as well as reliable information in case of disruptions (90 percent) are particularly important for attractive local public transport. vbz.de
Charges for residents‘ parking overturned: After the nationwide cap on residents‘ parking fees was overturned, Freiburg has significantly increased them. The Federal Administrative Court has now declared the city’s regulation illegal – but not because of the high costs. faz.net
EU project Admiral aims to make supply chains more climate neutral: Work in the Admiral project aims to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions generated by European freight transport. Behind this were far-reaching changes in terms of supply chain management. mm-logistik-vogel.eu
Clean truck transport: The end of the internal combustion engine will soon also affect trucks. But the trailers behind the tractor are largely free of environmental regulations. The EU wants to change that. Manufacturers like Schmitz Cargobull have to adapt. welt.de
Federal and state governments want to build hydrogen network: The meeting between the federal and state governments was unusually harmonious. The heads of the Länder and the Chancellor agreed to expand the hydrogen networks. A decision on the ongoing dispute over refugee costs will not be made until autumn. spiegel.de
Chile: Risking future as supplier of green hydrogen. A few years ago, European companies had big plans for renewable energy in Chile. Now many of them are facing extinction. handelsblatt.com
Study reveals: This is how the green hydrogen market will develop by 2050: Deloitte published a study that focused on the expansion of green hydrogen worldwide. According to the study, the green hydrogen market will grow to 600 million tonnes of trade volume and a turnover of 1.4 trillion dollars by 2050. During this time, up to two million new jobs are expected to be created, with North Africa benefiting most from the hydrogen ramp-up. ingenieur.de , deloitte.de (Study)
Spain: High temperatures, hardly any rain: Spain has experienced a record spring. Now there is a debate about whether there is even enough water for the ambitious hydrogen plans. weltspiegel.de
Habeck focuses on district heating: no focus on hydrogen. The struggle over the heating law continues even after the traffic lights agreed in principle on improvements. The Federal Minister of Economics, Robert Habeck, is against too strong a focus on hydrogen in heating. The Green politician told the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung that he is „proud of every change“ that makes the Building Energy Act better. But there is „one sensitive point, and that is hydrogen“. He would be happy if gas heating systems could run on hydrogen. „I’m just afraid that there won’t be enough for that.“ The available hydrogen would first be needed for areas such as the steel industry, where the transformation would not work any other way. sueddeutsche.de, muensterschezeitung.de
Hydrogen and Africa – Unlocking Industries – Hydrogen in Africa: To achieve the 1.5 degree target, we need a global energy turnaround. Not only African countries should focus on climate-friendly industrialisation, but Germany as an industrial location also needs more climate-neutral energy. The production of green hydrogen can become a key technology here – for many African countries and for Germany. afrikaverein.de
LAST WEEK IN THE BUNDESTAG:
Fighting hunger: Securing the world’s food supply continues to face enormous challenges, according to Andreas Graner Managing Director and Head of the Genebank Department at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research. Despite the adverse effects of climate change, the need for reduced use of fertilisers and pesticides, and the need to halt the loss of biodiversity and crop diversity, it is imperative to avoid a reduction in yields per hectare and, if possible, to increase yields in those crops where this is still possible, Graner said on Wednesday during a public expert discussion of the Parliamentary Advisory Council on Sustainable Development on the topic of „Sustainable agricultural and food systems“. According to the agricultural scientist, this requires innovations on a broad scale. more at bundestag.de
Committee discusses protection of indigenous peoples: The Committee on Economic Cooperation and Development discussed the protection of indigenous peoples in public session today. The Federal Government reported on the status of implementation of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No. 169 on the Protection of Indigenous Peoples, and Members also spoke with Ivo Cípio Aureliano, a Brazilian advocate for the rights of indigenous peoples, and with Annette Niederfranke, Director of the ILO Representation in Germany. The Parliamentary State Secretary in the Federal Ministry for Economic Development and Cooperation, Bärbel Kofler (SPD), called the ratification of the Convention by the Federal Republic of Germany in 2021 a „very important sign“. The lives and rights of 480 million people are at stake. Kofler stressed that the German government was taking its responsibility for implementation in many areas. At the UN Climate Change Conference in 2021, for example, it had promised to contribute to the funding of 1.7 billion dollars pledged there for indigenous communities. more auf bundestag.de
Dispute over the Energy Efficiency Act: Industry associations are opposed to the Federal Government’s bill to „increase energy efficiency and amend the Energy Services Act“ (20/6872). This became clear during a public hearing of the Committee for Climate Protection and Energy on Monday. The regulation received support from environmental associations, although the lack of binding requirements was criticised in part. The Energy Efficiency Act obliges public authorities, companies and data centres to take energy-saving measures to save more energy from 2024 in accordance with EU requirements. According to the federal government, it creates for the first time a cross-sectoral framework for more energy efficiency. In future, companies with an annual energy consumption of more than 15 gigawatt hours will be required to introduce energy or environmental management systems and to record and publish their energy efficiency measures in concrete plans. In addition, companies must in future avoid generating waste heat during production processes. If this is not possible, they must use the waste heat sensibly. In future, there will be energy efficiency standards for data centres. more at bundestag.de
Hearing on corrections to the energy price brake: On Wednesday, 14 June 2023, the Committee on Climate Protection and Energy dealt with a corrective amendment to the Natural Gas Heat Emergency Assistance Act, the Natural Gas Heat Price Brake Act and the Electricity Price Brake Act in a public hearing (20/6873). more on bundestag.de
We have the format of the UN climate conferences to thank for the binding climate targets agreed in Paris in 2015. Three years ago, the forecast was for four degrees of global warming by 2100 – now we are at 2.8 degrees. It is important for me to focus on something else: What does it take to make progress? How do we take responsibility for countries that suffer most from the consequences of the climate crisis? How do we manage to involve the economy?
Aysel Osmanoglu, Member of the Board of GLS Bank, …CO2 -intensive sectors were still profiting from their business models in 2023, while developing countries were struggling with the costs of climate adaptation. A redistribution must take place here. In concrete terms, this means that the promised fund for losses and damages, the Loss and Damage Fund, must finally be filled with life. The industrialised countries are not in a position to negotiate conditions. They are the main cause of the damage, so they are also responsible for the consequences. And finally, the lobbyists of the fossil fuel companies must finally lose their influence. In particular, they should stay away from climate conferences. Last year in Egypt, there were more of them at the climate summit than representatives of the ten countries most affected by the climate crisis. A lot still needs to change, especially in terms of speed and commitment to the countries of the global South. She could understand the frustration of many people, but was often annoyed herself. klimareporter.de
Before 2018, climate change and its consequences were not so high on the political agenda. That has changed rapidly. Now we have to put our money where our mouth is and take some unpleasant measures. One would be the energy transition. That is the task of the state. Some conversions will cause enormous costs. Every sector – such as agriculture, forestry or water supply – should see how it can mitigate this. Critical infrastructure is particularly important. In France, for example, many power plants are located on rivers because they need the river water for cooling. If the rivers go dry, it can disrupt operations. To reduce the vulnerability of critical infrastructure, it would be good to rely on renewable energies.
Peter Hoffmann Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research …. We need to realise that certain things that used to be normal should no longer be done lightly. For example, watering the garden all the time. There should also be rules for certain situations. In the case of water shortages, for example, it would be sensible to prioritise. First would come the drinking water supply, then industry and only at the end the private garden. Rules set by politicians should be accepted. rbb24.de
African delegation meets Putin: A delegation from Africa met with Head of State Putin in Russia. South Africa’s President Ramaphosa called for a negotiated peace in Ukraine. Putin praised the „balanced approach of the African friends“. A high-level delegation of African governments met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in St. Petersburg. Although the meeting took place within the framework of the economic forum there, it was mainly about the war against Ukraine. „This war must end,“ South Africa’s President Cyril Ramaphosa demanded at the meeting. „It must be settled through negotiations and diplomatic means.“ tageschau.de
From Spain to Morocco in 30 minutes: The two countries have concretised plans for a train connection. Now there is also the green light from the EU. Plans for a railway tunnel between Europe and the African continent have been around since the 1970s. After a long pause due to diplomatic conflicts, the two countries Spain and Morocco are now pushing ahead with the project. The EU is also involved, as the British newspaper „The Independent“ reports. According to the report, Spain has confirmed funding for a feasibility study for the planned railway tunnel amounting to 2.3 million euros. It was only in April that the two governments declared their intention to resume the project. After fourteen years of standstill, they now want to breathe new life into the project „of the greatest geostrategic importance for our countries and for relations between Europe and Africa“, The Independent quotes the Spanish Transport Minister Raquel Sanchez. t-online.de
Bundestag committee rebukes human rights policy in Egypt: A statement by the Bundestag’s human rights committee says the government in Cairo is „systematically attempting to silence critical civil society“ through laws. These included the Non-Governmental Organisations Law of 2019, the Cyber and Information Technology Crime Law of 2018, the Terrorist Entities Law of 2015, among others. Such laws were aimed in particular at massively restricting the work of critical journalists and human rights organisations, as well as preventing the expression of political opinion. Arbitrary mass detentions and trials would continue. In addition, an „extensive system of impunity“ prevails within the security authorities. dw.com
Kenya: Nairobi’s national park is threatened by climate and people: Nairobi is known as the „Green City in the Sun“ due to its pleasant climate and numerous green spaces. Situated at an altitude of 1,795 metres above sea level, the city enjoys mild temperatures all year round. The vibrant metropolis is also home to Nairobi National Park, a marvel located just outside the city centre. The park is a huge wildlife reserve that covers 117 square kilometres. It is considered the only park in the world located within a capital city. However, according to experts, Nairobi National Park faces a variety of threats, including pollution, human-wildlife conflict, infrastructure development and poaching. „A few years ago, there was an incident of lions walking on the roads and this is something we have not seen for generations,“ says Otieno. „This shows us that we need to rethink how we live together, how we can develop our infrastructure and at the same time preserve the rich nature we had as a city,“ he adds. „The biggest challenge for the park is the growing population on the periphery,“ says conservationist David Mascall. africanews.com
Constitutional referendum in Mali: military rulers soon to become civilian. A constitutional referendum in Mali should pave the way for military coup leader Goita to be elected president. Then the UN can also withdraw. taz.de
Sudan declares Perthes an undesirable person: Sudan’s military ruler al-Burhan accuses the German UN special envoy Perthes of being responsible for the start of the fighting in the country. Now the government has declared him an undesirable person. tagesschau.de
ECB: Study on climate-friendly interest rate system: As expected, the ECB raised interest rates by 0.25 percentage points last Thursday. The consequences could put the brakes on climate protection. Suggestions for a monetary policy that would not stall decarbonisation are made in a new Bertelsmann Foundation study by Alexander Kriwoluzky (DIW Berlin) and Ulrich Volz (SOAS, University of London). The fiscal dilemma: higher interest rates lead to less investment and less climate-neutral transformation of the economy. At the same time, an „interest rate hammer“ would strangle the room for manoeuvre even more in the long term, warns the Foundation’s economic policy spokesman, Daniel Posch. Because the consequences of unchecked climate change threaten the price and financial stability of the European economies. bertelsmann-stiftung.de
Wildfires pollute cities with ozone: Particulate matter is not the only health hazard that smoke from wildfires brings to cities. Fires can cause concentrations of ozone to rise even at great distances.Attention to air pollution problems triggered by the wildfire smoke that has blanketed the eastern US in recent days has focused primarily on fine particles – particulate matter can penetrate deep into the lungs when breathed and creates a significant health risk. But prolonged exposure to high concentrations of ozone is also not good for your health. It can aggravate asthma and trigger coughing, sore throats and breathing problems. Children, the elderly and anyone who spends a lot of time outdoors are particularly at risk. spektrum.de
Empty promises: For many companies, climate protection is just an advertising gimmick: Climate protection is a popular advertising strategy for companies. A recent study shows, however, that for the most part it remains an advertising gimmick. Many companies conceal their emissions without really committing themselves to climate protection. A report by ESG Book, a leading provider of sustainability data, proves this. According to the report, leading global companies have done nothing since 2018 to prevent pollution and mitigate climate change. Instead, they continue to contribute to extreme global warming, with 45 per cent supporting global warming of nearly three degrees, according to the study. However, in order to prevent the worst consequences of climate change, the temperature must not rise above 1.5 degrees in the coming years compared to the pre-1990 period – say climate scientists and the Paris climate targets.
Deserts and droughts – a global problem: Yesterday was World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought. Few people in Europe know about it, although drought and deserts have long been a reality here too. klimareporter.de
Recycling: How Coke cans can be turned into cars. t3n.de
North Atlantic routes: Global warming has been causing aircraft to encounter more and more turbulence for decades. heise.de
Monday, 19 June 2023 until Wednesday, 21 June 2023
6th European Climate Change Adaptation (ECCA) Conference 2023
The audience will be adaptation experts – researchers‘ and practitioners, policy-makers, local authorities, the private sector with a focus on businesses already engaged and taking action on climate risk, investors, NGOs, citizens organisations, youth and education organisations, community groups engaged in adaptation, communicators and all interested individuals. They will be able to hear from Europe’s leading climate researchers who are using trusted data to develop cutting-edge climate action tools, decision-support platforms and prototype climate services for adapting to the climate challenges they are tasked with addressing. There will be an opportunity to share actual examples of the challenges and potential solutions.
Since the last ECCA conference in May and June 2021, Europe experienced the warmest summer on record, accompanied by severe floods in western Europe and dry conditions in the Mediterranean. In 2022, even more records were broken in Europe, with a record high temperature in Ireland in July 2022, for example.
Besides necessary mitigation measures, adaptation actions contribute to recovery, resilience, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation and restoration, citizen safety, wellbeing, and financial security. The goal of the conference, among the goals of the previous ECCA editions, is to inspire adaptation by showcasing solutions, exchanging knowledge, creating connections, and encouraging dialogue on how to act more and faster at every level.
For more information and the registration form please have a look here.
Organizer: The Joint Programme Initiative „Connecting Climate Knowledge for Europe“ (JPI Climate), together with the MAGICA project, supported by the European Commission
Monday, 19 June 2023 16:00 to 20:00
Presentation of two reports by SRU and WBGU on the topic of environment and health
Healthy Living in a Healthy Environment: Challenges and Perspectives from Local to Global
The recent heat waves, droughts and heavy rain events and the COVID 19 pandemic are renewed wake-up calls to take the health dimensions of environmental, nature and climate protection much more seriously than before. Human health depends on an intact environment. This applies directly to the quality of air, water and soil, for example. However, there are also less obvious connections, for example pandemic risks due to the destruction of nature and health consequences of the climate crisis.
In recent decades, considerable improvements in human health have been achieved both nationally and globally. However, many people still suffer from preventable diseases and burdens, not least due to poverty. Two developments in particular put previous successes in protecting and promoting health at risk: Firstly, lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise worldwide. The way many people eat and move, live and work not only threatens the natural basis of life, but also damages their own health. On the other hand, the negative effects of the climate, biodiversity and pollution crisis on human health are increasing.
This coupled environmental and health crisis deserves the attention of politicians and the public. The SRU and the WBGU have therefore made it the subject of their current reports. The event „Healthy Living in a Healthy Environment – Challenges and Perspectives Local to Global“ will illuminate the topic from the complementary perspectives of both councils. wbgu.de
Digital Euro: Pseudonymisation should prevent the transparent customer
The Commission wants the ECB and national central banks „not to be able to directly identify“ individual users of the digital euro. Anonymous is probably only possible in cash. The EU Commission is serious about the digital euro. „Central bank money in physical form alone cannot meet the needs of a rapidly digitalising economy,“ several media and news agencies quote from a draft for a relevant legal framework by the EU Commission, which it is expected to present on 28 June. „It is therefore necessary to introduce a new form of official currency as legal tender.“ Many citizens want the European digital currency, which has been under consideration for some time, to be usable as anonymously as cash. They are mainly concerned about the privacy of their payments. The Commission therefore wants to design the processing of digital euro transactions in such a way that neither the European Central Bank (ECB) nor the national central banks „can attribute data to an identified or identifiable digital euro user“. On the other hand, for example, the EU’s constantly expanded anti-money laundering regulations are to be complied with. heise.de
All images, unless otherwise stated: pixabay.com
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